Europe is a continent that lies fully in the Northern Hemisphere and primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere. It consists of the westernmost peninsulas of Eurasia’s continental landmass, shares the continental landmass of Afro-Eurasia with both Asia and Africa, and is bounded by the Arctic to the , the Atlantic to the , the Mediterranean to the , and Asia to the .

The watershed of the Ural Mountains, the Ural , the Caspian Sea, the Greater Caucasus, the Black , and the waterways of the Turkish Straits are commonly thought to separate Europe from Asia. Despite the fact that much of this border is over land, Europe is recognized as its own continent due to its vast physical size as well as the weight of its and traditions.

Europe is the second smallest continent, covering around 10,180,000 km2 (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the ’s surface (6.8% of land area) (using the seven-continent model). Politically, Europe is split into around fifty independent states, the largest of which is .