Boring Billion

The Boring Billion, otherwise known as the Barren Billion, the Dullest Time in Earth’s History, and Earth’s Middle Ages, is the time period between 1.8 and 0.8 billion years ago (Gya) spanning the middle Proterozoic eon, characterized by more or less tectonic stability, climatic stasis, and slow biological evolution. Summary It is bordered by two …

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Space Exploration Technologies Corp. (doing business as SpaceX) is an American aerospace manufacturer, space transportation services and communications corporation headquartered in Hawthorne, California. SpaceX was founded in 2002 by Elon Musk with the goal of reducing space transportation costs to enable the colonization of Mars. SpaceX manufactures the Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy launch vehicles, …

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Falcon 9

Falcon 9 is a partially reusable two-stage-to-orbit medium-lift launch vehicle designed and manufactured by SpaceX in the United States. The latest version of the first stage can return to Earth and be flown again multiple times. Both the first and second stages are powered by SpaceX Merlin engines, using cryogenic liquid oxygen and rocket-grade kerosene …

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James Webb Space Telescope

NASA created the James Webb Space Telescope with support from the European Space Agency and the Canadian Space Agency. The telescope is named after James E. Webb, who served as NASA administrator from 1961 to 1968 and was instrumental in the Apollo program. JWST’s primary mirror, the Optical Telescope Element, consists of 18 hexagonal mirror …

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Stream and River Deposits

As you possibly already know, the Earth’s surface is constantly eroded by flowing water. After rivers erode rock and soil, they deposit (drop) their load downstream. This process is known as deposition. Rocks and soils deposited by streams are known as “sediments”. Rivers and streams deposit sediment where the speed of the water current decreases. In …

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Geometer moth

The geometer moths are moths that belong to the insect order Lepidoptera, which includes moths and butterflies. Their scientific name is derived from the Ancient Greek geo and metron meaning “measure” in allusion to how their larvae, or “inchworms,” appear to “measure the earth” as they crawl in a looping form. It is a fairly …

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Insects (from Latin insectum) are pancrustacean hexapod invertebrates of the class Insecta. They are the largest group within the arthropod phylum. Insects have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body (head, thorax and abdomen), three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes and one pair of antennae. Insects are the most diverse group of animals; they include more than a million described species and represent more than half of all known living organisms. The total number of extant species is estimated at …

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Hydrogen is the chemical element with the symbol H and atomic number 1. Hydrogen is the lightest element. At standard conditions hydrogen is a gas of diatomic molecules having the formula H2. It is colorless, odorless, non-toxic, and highly combustible. Hydrogen is the most abundant chemical substance in the universe, constituting roughly 75% of all …

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Oxygen is the chemical element with the symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group in the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds. Oxygen is Earth’s most abundant element, and after hydrogen and helium, it is the third-most abundant element in the universe.


The Sun is the central star of the Solar System. It is a nearly perfect ball of hot plasma that has been heated to incandescence by nuclear fusion processes in its center and radiates energy mostly as visible light, ultraviolet light, and infrared radiation. It is by far the most essential source of energy for …

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