In , a database is an organized collection of  stored and accessed electronically from a  . Where databases are more complex they are often developed using formal  and modeling .

The database management  (DBMS) is the software that interacts with end users, applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze the . The DBMS additionally encompasses the core facilities provided to administer the database. The sum total of the database, the DBMS and the associated applications can be referred to as a “database ”. Often the term “database” is also used loosely to refer to any of the DBMS, the database or an application associated with the database.

scientists may classify database-management systems according to the database models that they support. Relational databases became dominant in the 1980s. These model as rows and columns in a of tables, and the vast majority use SQL for writing and querying . In the 2000s, non-relational databases became popular, referred to as NoSQL because they use different query languages.

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