Reaction rate

The reaction rate or rate of reaction is the speed at which a chemical reaction takes place, defined as proportional to the increase in the concentration of a product per unit time and to the decrease in the concentration of a reactant per unit time.

Urolithin A

Urolithin A is a metabolite compound produced by gut bacteria during the metabolism of ellagitannins. It is a member of the chemical compound family known as benzo-coumarins or dibenzo-pyrones. Its precursors, ellagic acids and ellagitannins, are found in many plants, including edible ones like pomegranates, strawberries, raspberries, and walnuts. Since the early 2000s, urolithin A …

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DNA damage

DNA damage occurs at a rate of 10,000 to 1,000,000 molecular lesions per cell each day as a result of environmental influences and normal metabolic activities within the cell. While this accounts for just 0.000165 percent of the human genome’s nearly 6 billion bases, unrepaired lesions in essential genes can impair a cell’s capacity to …

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The anion (negatively charged ion) Cl is the anion (chloride ion). It is generated when the element chlorine (a halogen) gets an electron or when a molecule such as hydrogen chloride is dissolved in water or other polar solvents. Chloride compounds like sodium chloride are frequently extremely soluble in water. [4] It is an electrolyte …

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Hydrogen is the chemical element with the symbol H and atomic number 1. Hydrogen is the lightest element. At standard conditions hydrogen is a gas of diatomic molecules having the formula H2. It is colorless, odorless, non-toxic, and highly combustible. Hydrogen is the most abundant chemical substance in the universe, constituting roughly 75% of all …

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Oxygen is the chemical element with the symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group in the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds. Oxygen is Earth’s most abundant element, and after hydrogen and helium, it is the third-most abundant element in the universe.