Boring Billion

The Boring Billion, otherwise known as the Barren Billion, the Dullest Time in Earth’s History, and Earth’s Middle Ages, is the time period between 1.8 and 0.8 billion years ago (Gya) spanning the middle Proterozoic eon, characterized by more or less tectonic stability, climatic stasis, and slow biological evolution. Summary It is bordered by two …

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Falcon 9

Falcon 9 is a partially reusable two-stage-to-orbit medium-lift launch vehicle designed and manufactured by SpaceX in the United States. The latest version of the first stage can return to Earth and be flown again multiple times. Both the first and second stages are powered by SpaceX Merlin engines, using cryogenic liquid oxygen and rocket-grade kerosene …

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Oxygen is the chemical element with the symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group in the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds. Oxygen is Earth’s most abundant element, and after hydrogen and helium, it is the third-most abundant element in the universe.


The Sun is the central star of the Solar System. It is a nearly perfect ball of hot plasma that has been heated to incandescence by nuclear fusion processes in its center and radiates energy mostly as visible light, ultraviolet light, and infrared radiation. It is by far the most essential source of energy for …

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Water is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth‘s hydrosphere and the fluids of all known living organisms. “Water” is the name of the liquid state of H2O at standard conditions for temperature and pressure. It is vital for all known forms of life, even though it provides no calories or organic nutrients. Its chemical formula H2O, indicates that …

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Humidity is the concentration of water vapor present in the air. Water vapor, the gaseous state of water, is generally invisible to the human eye. Humidity indicates the likelihood for precipitation, dew, or fog to be present. Humidity depends on the temperature and pressure of the system of interest. The same amount of water vapor results in higher humidity in cool air …

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