System

Economy of the United States

The United States’ economy is a highly developed market economy. It has the world’s largest economy in terms of nominal GDP and net worth, and the second-largest in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP) after China. The United States possesses the world’s most technologically advanced and inventive economy. Its companies are at or near the …

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SpaceX

Space Exploration Technologies Corp. (doing business as SpaceX) is an American aerospace manufacturer, space transportation services and communications corporation headquartered in Hawthorne, California. SpaceX was founded in 2002 by Elon Musk with the goal of reducing space transportation costs to enable the colonization of Mars. SpaceX manufactures the Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy launch vehicles, …

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Falcon 9

Falcon 9 is a partially reusable two-stage-to-orbit medium-lift launch vehicle designed and manufactured by SpaceX in the United States. The latest version of the first stage can return to Earth and be flown again multiple times. Both the first and second stages are powered by SpaceX Merlin engines, using cryogenic liquid oxygen and rocket-grade kerosene …

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Indian reservation

An Indian reservation is an area of land tenure governed by a federally recognized Native American tribal nation under the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, rather than by the government of the state in which it is located. The 326 Indian reservations in the United States are associated with specific Native American nations, often on …

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Interstate Highway System

The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly known as the Interstate Highway System, is a network of controlled-access highways that forms part of the National Highway System in the United States. Construction of the original Interstate Highway System was proclaimed complete in 1992, despite deviations from the original 1956 plan …

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Sociology

Sociology is a social science that focuses on society, human social behavior, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and aspects of culture associated with everyday life. It uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis  to develop a body of knowledge about social order and social change.  While some sociologists conduct research that may be applied directly to social policy and welfare, others focus primarily on refining the theoretical understanding of …

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Van Stadens Wind Farm

Construction on Van Stadens Wind Farm outside Port Elizabeth in the Eastern Cape, was started in September 2012. The South African renewable energy company, MetroWind, is proceeding with the R550-million project which will provide power to the Nelson Mandela Bay municipality. The company will construct nine 3-megawatt wind turbines, boosting the local electricity grid, accounting for nearly half the 10 percent renewable energy …

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University of Colorado Boulder

The University of Colorado Boulder (CU Boulder, CU, or Colorado) is a public research university in Boulder, Colorado. It is the flagship university of the University of Colorado system, and was founded in 1876, five months before Colorado became a state. CU Boulder is a member of the Association of American Universities, a selective group of major research universities in North America, and is classified as an R1 University, meaning that it …

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Nyko FrontMan

The Nyko Frontman is a guitar controller produced by Nyko for several game systems to be used with the video games Guitar Hero and Rock Band. Depending on the version, its appearance is very similar to the Fender Telecaster (Wii) or the Gibson Explorer (PS2/PS3).

Organism

In biology, an organism is any organic, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells (cell theory). Organisms are classified by taxonomy into groups such as multicellular animals, plants, and fungi; or unicellular microorganisms such as protists, bacteria, and archaea. All types of organisms are capable of reproduction, growth …

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Ecology

Ecology is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical environment. Ecology considers organisms at the individual, population, community, ecosystems, and biosphere level. Ecology overlaps with the closely related sciences of biogeography, evolutionary biology, genetics, ethology and natural history. Ecology is a branch of biology, and it is not synonymous with environmentalism.

Sun

The Sun is the central star of the Solar System. It is a nearly perfect ball of hot plasma that has been heated to incandescence by nuclear fusion processes in its center and radiates energy mostly as visible light, ultraviolet light, and infrared radiation. It is by far the most essential source of energy for …

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Aeternity Blockchain

The Aeternity blockchain is well-known for its Sofia smart contracts, Fate Virtual Machine (VM) framework, state channel scaling technologies, and its own decentralized oracle and governance system. Aeternity is intended for usage in decentralized finance (DeFi), document, contract, invoice, and receipt management, payments, loans, blockchain-based identity, Internet of Things (IoT) blockchain identities and hardware, gaming, …

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Adaptive State Sharding

The Elrond Network can leverage parallel processing thanks to Adaptive State Sharding technology, which combines three standardized sharding types (state, network, and transaction sharding) into a single balanced high-performance system. As a consequence, a safe blockchain with lightning-fast scalability and transaction speeds has been created. This facilitates shard merging and shard splitting, which allows the …

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Hydrosphere

The hydrosphere is defined as the total mass of water found on, beneath, and above the surface of a planet, minor planet, or natural satellite. Despite the fact that the Earth’s hydrosphere has been existing for roughly 4 billion years, it is still changing shape. This is created by seafloor spreading and continental drift, which …

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Carnegie Mellon University

Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) is a private research university based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Founded in 1900, the university is a merger of the Carnegie Institute of Technology and the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research. The university was established by Andrew Carnegie as the Carnegie Technical Schools, the university became the Carnegie Institute of Technology in …

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Ampere

The ampere, often shortened to amp, is the base unit of electric current in the International System of Units (SI). It is named after André-Marie Ampère (1775–1836), French mathematician and physicist, considered the father of electromagnetism.

City

A city is a large human settlement. It can be defined as a permanent and densely settled place with administratively defined boundaries whose members work primarily on non-agricultural tasks. Cities generally have extensive systems for housing, transportation, sanitation, utilities, land use, production of goods, and communication. Their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process, such as improving efficiency of goods and service …

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Alps

The Alps are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe, stretching approximately 1,200 km (750 mi) across eight Alpine countries (from west to east): France, Switzerland, Monaco, Italy, Liechtenstein, Austria, Germany, and Slovenia.

Science

Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the world.

Government

A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, executive, and judiciary. Government is a means by which organizational policies are enforced, as well as a mechanism for determining policy. Each government has a kind of constitution, a statement …

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Doctrine

Doctrine is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the essence of teachings in a given branch of knowledge or in a belief system. The etymological Greek analogue is “catechism”.

Census Bureau-designated regions and divisions

Since 1950, the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau region definition is “widely used … for data collection and analysis”, and is the most commonly used classification system. Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont) Division 2: Mid-Atlantic (New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania) Region 2: Midwest (Prior to June 1984, the …

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Currency

A currency in the most specific sense is money in any form when in use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins. A more general definition is that a currency is a system of money (monetary units) in common use, especially for people in a nation. Under this definition, U.S. dollars (US$), euros (€), Indian rupee (₹), Japanese yen (¥), and pounds sterling (£) are examples of currencies. Currencies may act as stores …

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Data integrity

Data integrity is the maintenance of, and the assurance of, data accuracy and consistency over its entire life-cycle and is a critical aspect to the design, implementation, and usage of any system that stores, processes, or retrieves data. The term is broad in scope and may have widely different meanings depending on the specific context – even under the …

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Computer programming

Computer programming is the process of designing and building an executable computer program to accomplish a specific computing result or to perform a specific task. Programming involves tasks such as: analysis, generating algorithms, profiling algorithms’ accuracy and resource consumption, and the implementation of algorithms in a chosen programming language (commonly referred to as coding). The source code of a program is written in one or more languages that …

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Microprocessor

A microprocessor is a computer processor where the data processing logic and control is included on a single integrated circuit, or a small number of integrated circuits. The microprocessor contains the arithmetic, logic, and control circuitry required to perform the functions of a computer’s central processing unit. The integrated circuit is capable of interpreting and executing program instructions …

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Intellectual property

Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect. There are many types of intellectual property, and some countries recognize more than others. The most well-known types are copyrights, patents, trademarks, and trade secrets. The modern concept of intellectual property developed in England in the 17th and 18th centuries. The term “intellectual property” began to be used …

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Turing completeness

In computability theory, a system of data-manipulation rules is said to be Turing-complete or computationally universal if it can be used to simulate any Turing machine. This means that this system is able to recognize or decide other data-manipulation rule sets. Turing completeness is used as a way to express the power of such a data-manipulation rule set. Virtually all programming …

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Software

Software is a set of instructions that tells a computer how to operate. This is in contrast to hardware, which is the foundation upon which the system is constructed and which actually conducts the job. At the lowest programming level, executable code consists of machine language instructions supported by an individual processor—typically a central processing unit (CPU) or a graphics processing unit (GPU). Machine language …

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Wiki

A wiki is a hypertext publication collaboratively edited and managed by its own audience directly using a web browser. A typical wiki contains multiple pages for the subjects or scope of the project and could be either open to the public or limited to use within an organization for maintaining its internal knowledge base. ikis are enabled by wiki software, otherwise known as …

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Sanitation

Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and ‘treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.’ Preventing human contact with feces is part of sanitation, as is hand washing with soap. Sanitation systems aim to protect human health by providing a clean environment that will stop the transmission of disease, especially …

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Automation

Automation describes a wide range of technologies that reduce human intervention in processes. Human intervention is reduced by predetermining decision criteria, subprocess relationships, and related actions — and embodying those predeterminations in machines. Automation, includes the use of various equipment and control systems such as machinery, processes in factories, boilers, and heat-treating ovens, switching on telephone networks; steering and stabilization of ships, aircraft, and other applications and vehicles with …

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Boeing 787 Dreamliner

The Boeing 787 Dreamliner is an American wide-body jet airliner manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. After dropping its Sonic Cruiser project, Boeing announced the conventional 7E7 on January 29, 2003, focused on efficiency. The program was launched on April 26, 2004, with an order for 50 from All Nippon Airways (ANA), targeting a 2008 introduction. On July 8, 2007, the prototype was rolled out without major …

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Low-power wide-area network

A low-power wide-area network (LPWAN) or low-power wide-area (LPWA) network or low-power network (LPN) is a type of wireless telecommunication wide area network designed to allow long-range communications at a low bit rate among things (connected objects), such as sensors operated on a battery. The low power, low bit rate and intended use distinguish this type of network from a wireless WAN that is designed to connect users or businesses, and carry …

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Control system

Using control loops, a control system manages, commands, directs, or controls the behavior of other devices or systems. It can range from a single home heating controller that uses a thermostat to operate a residential boiler to massive industrial control systems that control processes or machinery.

Computer

A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as programs. These programs enable computers to perform a wide range of tasks. A computer system is a “complete” computer that includes the hardware, operating system (main software), and peripheral equipment needed and used for “full” operation. This term may also refer to a group of …

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Database

In computing, a database is an organized collection of data stored and accessed electronically from a computer system. Where databases are more complex they are often developed using formal design and modeling techniques. The database management system (DBMS) is the software that interacts with end users, applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze the data. The DBMS software additionally encompasses the core facilities provided to administer …

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Bitcoin network

The bitcoin network is a peer-to-peer payment network that operates on a cryptographic protocol. Users send and receive bitcoins, the units of currency, by broadcasting digitally signed messages to the network using bitcoin cryptocurrency wallet software. Transactions are recorded into a distributed, replicated public database known as the blockchain, with consensus achieved by a proof-of-work system called mining. Satoshi Nakamoto, the designer of bitcoin, claimed that design and coding of bitcoin began …

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Cryptography

Cryptography, or cryptology, is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of adversarial behavior. More generally, cryptography is about constructing and analyzing protocols that prevent third parties or the public from reading private messages; various aspects of information security, such as data confidentiality, data integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation, are central to modern cryptography. Modern cryptography exists at the intersection of the disciplines of mathematics, computer science, electrical engineering, communication …

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign country in north-western Europe, off the north-­western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-­eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands within the British Isles. Northern Ireland shares a land border with the Republic of …

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Rafidain Bank

Rafidain Bank (Arabic: مصرف الرافدين‎) is the largest bank in Iraq, with 165 branches inside Iraq and with branches in Cairo, Beirut, Abu Dhabi, Bahrain, Sana’a, Amman and Jabal Amman. Its HQ is in central Baghdad. The bank was established in 1941 and in the 1960s in a wave of Ba’ath nationalisation became a state …

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Electrical engineering

Electrical engineering is an engineering discipline concerned with the study, design and application of equipment, devices and systems which use electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism. It emerged as an identifiable occupation in the latter half of the 19th century after commercialization of the electric telegraph, the telephone, and electrical power generation, distribution and use. Electrical engineering is now divided into a wide range of …

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Power engineering

Power engineering, also called power systems engineering, is a subfield of electrical engineering that deals with the generation, transmission, distribution, and utilization of electric power, and the electrical apparatus connected to such systems. Although much of the field is concerned with the problems of three-phase AC power – the standard for large-scale power transmission and distribution across the modern …

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Power system protection

Power system protection is a branch of electrical power engineering that deals with the protection of electrical power systems from faults through the disconnection of faulted parts from the rest of the electrical network. The objective of a protection scheme is to keep the power system stable by isolating only the components that are under fault, whilst leaving as much of …

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Humidity

Humidity is the concentration of water vapor present in the air. Water vapor, the gaseous state of water, is generally invisible to the human eye. Humidity indicates the likelihood for precipitation, dew, or fog to be present. Humidity depends on the temperature and pressure of the system of interest. The same amount of water vapor results in higher humidity in cool air …

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Cancelled expressways in Toronto

The cancelled expressways in Toronto were a planned series of expressways in Toronto, Ontario, Canada that were only partially built or cancelled due to public opposition. The system of expressways was intended to spur or handle growth in the suburbs of Toronto, but were opposed by citizens within the city of Toronto proper, citing the demolition of homes and park lands, air pollution, …

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Central bank

A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages the currency and monetary policy of a state or formal monetary union, and oversees their commercial banking system. In contrast to a commercial bank, a central bank possesses a monopoly on increasing the monetary base. Most central banks also have supervisory and regulatory powers to ensure the stability of member institutions, to prevent bank runs, and to discourage reckless …

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