Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by GuatemalaBelize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Mexico covers 1,972,550 square kilometers (761,610 sq mi), making it the world’s 13th-largest country by area. Mexico is organized as a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, its capital and largest metropolis. Other major urban areas include GuadalajaraMonterrey, Puebla, TolucaTijuana, Ciudad Juárez, and León.

Appalachian Mountains

The Appalachian Mountains, sometimes known as the Appalachians, are a mountain range in eastern to northern North America. During the Ordovician Period, the Appalachians initially developed some 480 million years ago. They formerly reached altitudes comparable to the Alps and the Rocky Mountains before succumbing to natural erosion. The Appalachian Mountains are a barrier to east–west movement because they form a sequence of alternating ridgelines and valleys that are angled in opposition to most routes and trains that go east–west.

List of largest land carnivorans

This list contains terrestrial members of the order Carnivora with an average reported mass of 160 kilograms (350 lb) or more, all bears and pantherine cats.

RankCommon nameFamilyAverage
mass (kg)
Native range
by continent
1Polar bearUrsidae360North America, Eurasia
2Brown bearUrsidae318North America, Eurasia, formerly Africa
4LionFelidae200AfricaAsia. formerly Europe
5American black bearUrsidae159North America
6Asiatic black bearUrsidae136Asia
7Spectacled bearUrsidae136South America
8Sloth bearUrsidae136Asia
9JaguarFelidae113North America, South America
10Giant pandaUrsidae113Asia


Canada is a nation located in North America. Its 10 provinces and three territories stretch from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, totaling 9.98 million square kilometers (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country in terms of total area. Its southern and western border with the United States is the world’s longest bi-national land border, reaching 8,891 kilometers (5,525 miles). The capital of Canada is Ottawa, while the three major metropolitan regions are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.

Indigenous peoples have lived in what is now Canada for thousands of years. British and French expeditions began exploring and settling along the Atlantic coast in the 16th century. In 1763, France relinquished practically all of its North American possessions as a result of several violent battles. Canada was created as a federal dominion of four provinces in 1867, after the amalgamation of three British North American colonies through Confederation. This triggered the accretion of provinces and territories, as well as a trend of growing independence from the United Kingdom. The Statute of Westminster 1931 emphasized this growing autonomy, which culminated in the Canada Act 1982.

Canada is a Westminster-style parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy. The country’s head of government is the prime minister, who is chosen by the elected House of Commons and is appointed by the governor general, who represents the monarch, who acts as head of state. The country is a Commonwealth realm, and the federal government is officially multilingual. In worldwide comparisons of government openness, civil freedoms, quality of life, economic freedom, and education, it rates among the highest.

Canada is a developed country with the seventeenth-highest nominal per-capita income in the world and the sixteenth-highest position in the Human Development Index. Its advanced economy is the world’s tenth-largest, owing mostly to its enormous natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is a member of several major international and intergovernmental organizations or groups, including the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Commonwealth of Nations, the Arctic Council, and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).