Canada is a nation located in North America. Its 10 provinces and three territories stretch from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, totaling 9.98 million square kilometers (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country in terms of total area.
Its southern and western border with the United States is the world’s longest bi-national land border, reaching 8,891 kilometers (5,525 miles).
Indigenous peoples have lived in what is now Canada for thousands of years.
British and French expeditions began exploring and settling along the Atlantic coast in the 16th century.
This triggered the accretion of provinces and territories, as well as a trend of growing independence from the United Kingdom.
The Statute of Westminster 1931 emphasized this growing autonomy, which culminated in the Canada Act 1982.
Canada is a Westminster-style parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy.
The country is a Commonwealth realm, and the federal government is officially multilingual.
In worldwide comparisons of government openness, civil freedoms, quality of life, economic freedom, and education, it rates among the highest.
Its advanced economy is the world’s tenth-largest, owing mostly to its enormous natural resources and well-developed international trade networks.
Canada is a member of several major international and intergovernmental organizations or groups, including the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Commonwealth of Nations, the Arctic Council, and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).