is a nation located in . Its 10 provinces and three territories stretch from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic , totaling 9.98 million square kilometers (3.85 million square miles), making it the world's second-largest in terms of total area.

Its southern and western border with the is the world's longest bi-national border, reaching 8,891 kilometers (5,525 miles).

The of is Ottawa, while the three major regions are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.

Indigenous peoples have lived in what is now for thousands of years.

and expeditions began exploring and settling along the Atlantic coast in the 16th century.

In 1763, relinquished practically all of its North possessions as a result of several violent battles.

was created as a dominion of four provinces in 1867, after the amalgamation of three North colonies through Confederation.

This triggered the accretion of provinces and territories, as well as a trend of growing independence from the .

The Statute of Westminster 1931 emphasized this growing , which culminated in the Act 1982.

is a Westminster-style parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy.

The 's head of is the , who is chosen by the elected House of Commons and is appointed by the governor general, who represents the , who acts as head of .

The is a Commonwealth realm, and the is officially multilingual.

In worldwide comparisons of openness, civil freedoms, quality of life, freedom, and , it rates among the highest.

is a developed with the seventeenth-highest nominal per-capita in the world and the sixteenth-highest position in the Development Index.

Its advanced is the world's tenth-largest, owing mostly to its enormous resources and well-developed networks.

is a member of several major and organizations or groups, including the , NATO, the G7, the Group of Ten, the , the Organisation for Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Organization (WTO), the Commonwealth of Nations, the Arctic Council, and the Organization for Cooperation and Development (OECD).

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