Switzerland

  • Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a landlocked country at the confluence of Western, Central and Southern Europe. It is a federal republic composed of 26 cantons, with federal authorities based in Bern. Switzerland is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east.
  • It is geographically divided among the Swiss Plateau, the Alps and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2 (15,940 sq mi) and land area of 39,997 km2 (15,443 sq mi).
  • Although the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of approximately 8.5 million is concentrated mostly on the plateau, where the largest cities and economic centres are, among them Zürich, Geneva, Basel and Lausanne.
  • These cities are home to several offices of international organisations such as the WTO, the WHO, the ILO, the headquarters of FIFA, the UN’s second-largest office, as well as the main building of the Bank for International Settlements.
  • The main international airports of Switzerland are also located in these cities.

Mexico

Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by GuatemalaBelize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Mexico covers 1,972,550 square kilometers (761,610 sq mi), making it the world’s 13th-largest country by area. Mexico is organized as a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, its capital and largest metropolis. Other major urban areas include GuadalajaraMonterrey, Puebla, TolucaTijuana, Ciudad Juárez, and León.

The Bahamas

The Bahamas, known officially as the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, is a country within the Lucayan Archipelago of the West Indies in the Atlantic.

Nassau, on the island of New Providence, serves as the country’s capital. According to the Royal Bahamas Defence Force, The Bahamas‘ territory encompasses 470,000 km2 (180,000 sq mi) of ocean area.

The archipelagic state is located in the Atlantic Ocean, north of Cuba and northwest of the island of Hispaniola (divided between Haiti and the Dominican Republic) and the Turks and Caicos Islands, southeast of the American state of Florida, and east of the Florida Keys.

United States

The United States (U.S. or US), officially the United States of America (U.S.A. or USA) and commonly known as America, is a country primarily located in North America.

It consists of 50 states, a federal district, five major unincorporated territories, 326 Indian reservations, and some minor possessions. At 3.8 million square miles (9.8 million square kilometers), it is the world’s third- or fourth-largest country by total area.

The United States shares significant land borders with Canada to the north and Mexico to the south as well as limited maritime borders with the Bahamas, Cuba, and Russia. The national capital is Washington, D.C..

Canada

Canada is a nation located in North America. Its 10 provinces and three territories stretch from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, totaling 9.98 million square kilometers (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country in terms of total area. Its southern and western border with the United States is the world’s longest bi-national land border, reaching 8,891 kilometers (5,525 miles). The capital of Canada is Ottawa, while the three major metropolitan regions are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.

Indigenous peoples have lived in what is now Canada for thousands of years. British and French expeditions began exploring and settling along the Atlantic coast in the 16th century. In 1763, France relinquished practically all of its North American possessions as a result of several violent battles. Canada was created as a federal dominion of four provinces in 1867, after the amalgamation of three British North American colonies through Confederation. This triggered the accretion of provinces and territories, as well as a trend of growing independence from the United Kingdom. The Statute of Westminster 1931 emphasized this growing autonomy, which culminated in the Canada Act 1982.

Canada is a Westminster-style parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy. The country’s head of government is the prime minister, who is chosen by the elected House of Commons and is appointed by the governor general, who represents the monarch, who acts as head of state. The country is a Commonwealth realm, and the federal government is officially multilingual. In worldwide comparisons of government openness, civil freedoms, quality of life, economic freedom, and education, it rates among the highest.

Canada is a developed country with the seventeenth-highest nominal per-capita income in the world and the sixteenth-highest position in the Human Development Index. Its advanced economy is the world’s tenth-largest, owing mostly to its enormous natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is a member of several major international and intergovernmental organizations or groups, including the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Commonwealth of Nations, the Arctic Council, and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).