Berlin is Germany’s capital and largest city in terms of both area and population. Berlin, one of Germany’s sixteen component states, is surrounded by the State of Brandenburg and is next to Potsdam, the capital of Brandenburg.

Berlin’s urban area, with a population of roughly 4.5 million people, is Germany’s second most populated urban region after the Ruhr.

The Berlin-Brandenburg capital region has a population of over six million people and is Germany’s third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions.

Berlin is built on both sides of the Spree River, which flows into the Havel near the western district of Spandau.

Berlin has a mild seasonal climate due to its position in the European Plain.

Forests, parks, gardens, rivers, canals, and lakes cover almost one-third of the city’s land area.

The city is located in the linguistic region of Central Germany, with the Berlin dialect being a variety of the Lusatian-New Marchian dialects.