Berlin is Germany's and largest in terms of both area and population. Berlin, one of 's sixteen component states, is surrounded by the of Brandenburg and is next to Potsdam, the of Brandenburg.

Berlin's urban area, with a population of roughly 4.5 million , is 's second most populated urban after the Ruhr.

The Berlin-Brandenburg has a population of over six million and is 's third-largest after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions.

Berlin is built on both sides of the Spree , which flows into the Havel near the western of Spandau.

Berlin has a mild seasonal climate due to its position in the European Plain.

Forests, parks, gardens, , canals, and cover almost one-third of the 's area.

The is located in the linguistic of Central , with the Berlin dialect being a variety of the Lusatian-New Marchian dialects.

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