Concrete is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens (cures) over time. Concrete is the second-most-used substance in the world after water, and is the most widely used building material. Its usage worldwide, ton for ton, is twice that of steel, wood, plastics, …

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When an electrolyte is dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water, it generates an electrically conducting solution. The electrolyte dissolves and splits into cations and anions, which scatter evenly across the solvent. Such a solution is electrically neutral. When an electric potential is introduced to such a solution, the cations are pulled to the …

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