is the cultivation of and . was an important step in the growth of sedentary civilization, since it produced surpluses that allowed to live in .

has been practiced for thousands of years. Beginning at least 105,000 years ago, fledgling farmers began to sow wild grains approximately 11,500 years ago.

Domestication of pigs, , and cattle began around 10,000 years ago.

were grown separately in at least 11 different parts of the world. In the twentieth century, based on large- monoculture grew to dominate , despite the fact that around 2 billion still relied on subsistence .

Foods, textiles, fuels, and raw materials (such as rubber) are the principal products.

Cereals (grains), vegetables, fruits, oils, , , , and fungus are examples of classes.

employs more than one-third of the world's workforce, second only to the service sector, though in recent decades, the trend of a decreasing of workers has continued, particularly in developing countries where smallholdings are being supplanted by and mechanization, resulting in enormous crop yield increases.

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