With over 39.5 million residents, is the most populous in the .

It is bordered by to the east, to the southeast, the to the west, to the north, and to the south.

The greater area and the Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, respectively.

The of has a gross product of $3.2  as of 2019, and if it were a would be the 37th most populous and the fifth largest in the world.

The Greater area and the Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies.

was first settled by various Native Californian tribes, before being explored by Europeans during the 16th and 17th centuries.

In 1804, it was included in Alta  province within the Viceroyalty of New .

It became a part of in 1821, but was ceded to the in 1848 after the .

The western portion of that province was then organized and admitted as the 31st on September 9, 1850.

, the oldest and largest in the world, has had a profound effect on .

's ports and harbors handle about a third of all U.S. imports, most originating in Pacific Rim .

The Bay Area and the Greater Area are seen as centers of the and industries.

It shares a border with the U.S. states of , , and and the of Baja .

The large size of the results in climates that vary from moist tropical rainforests in the north to arid deserts in the interior.

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