Minnesota

is a in the upper Midwestern . It is the 12th largest U.S. in area and the 22nd most populous, with over 5.7 million residents.

Country
Admitted to the UnionMay 11, 1858 (32nd)
Saint Paul
Largest Minneapolis
Largest metro and urban areasMinneapolis–Saint Paul
 GovernorTim Walz 
 Lieutenant GovernorPeggy Flanagan
Legislature Legislature
 Upper houseSenate
 Lower houseHouse of Representatives
Judiciary Supreme Court
U.S. senatorsAmy Klobuchar 
Tina Smith 
 Total Area86,935.83 sq mi (225,163 km2)
 Land Area79,626.74 sq mi (206,232 km2)
  Area7,309.09 sq mi (18,930 km2)
 Lengthabout 400 mi (640 km)
 Width200–350 mi (320–560 km)
Elevation1,200 ft (370 m)
Highest elevation2,301 ft (701 m)
Lowest elevation602 ft (183 m)
  Population  Total5,707,390
 Median household income$68,388

’s geography consists of western prairies, now given over to intensive agriculture; deciduous forests in the southeast, now partially cleared, farmed, and settled; and the less populated Woods, used for mining, forestry, and recreation.

Roughly a third of the is covered in forests, and it is known as the “Land of 10,000 Lakes” for having over 14,000 bodies of fresh of at least ten acres.

A little more than half of Minnesotans live in the Minneapolis–Saint Paul metropolitan area, known as the “Twin Cities”, the ’s main political, economic, and cultural hub.

The Twin Cities is the 16th largest metropolitan area in the U.S. Other minor metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas include Duluth, Mankato, Moorhead, Rochester, and St. Cloud.

, which gets its name from the Dakota language, has been inhabited by various indigenous peoples since the Woodland period of the 11th century BCE.

Between roughly 200 and 500 CE, two areas of the indigenous Hopewell tradition emerged: the Laurel Complex in the , and Trempealeau Hopewell in the Mississippi Valley in the .

The Upper Mississippian culture, consisting of the Oneota people and other Siouan speakers, emerged around 1000 CE and lasted through the arrival of Europeans in the 17th century.

French explorers and missionaries were the earliest Europeans to enter the , encountering the Dakota, Ojibwe, and various Anishinaabe tribes.

Much of what is now formed part of the vast French holding of , which the purchased in 1803.

After several territorial reorganizations, the Territory was admitted to the Union as the 32nd in 1858.

’s official motto, L’Étoile du Nord, is the only motto in French; meaning “The Star of the ”, it was adopted shortly after statehood and reflects both the ’s early French settlers and its position as the northernmost in the contiguous U.S.

As part of the frontier, attracted settlers and homesteaders from across the country, with its growth initially centered on timber, agriculture, and railroad .

Into the early 20th century, European immigrants arrived in significant numbers, particularly from Scandinavia, , and Central Europe; many were linked to the failed revolutions of 1848, which partly influenced the ’s development as a major center of labor and social activism.

’s rapid industrialization and urbanization precipitated major social, economic, and political changes in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; the was at the forefront of labor rights, women’s suffrage, and political reform.

Minnesotan politics, culture, and identity continue to reflect this and remain highly progressive by national standards.

Since the late 20th century, ’s economy has diversified significantly, shifting from traditional industries such as agriculture and resource extraction to services, finance, and health care; it is consequently one of the richest in terms of GDP and per capita income.

The is home to 11 federally recognized reservations (seven Ojibwe, four Dakota), and remains a center of Scandinavian and German cultures.

In recent decades, has become increasingly multicultural, driven by both greater domestic migration and immigration from America, Asia, the Horn of Africa, and the Middle ; it has the nation’s largest population of Somali Americans and second largest Hmong population.

’s standard of living and level of education are among the highest in the U.S., and it is ranked among the best states in metrics such as employment, median income, safety, and governance.