Communication is “an apparent answer to the painful divisions between self and other, private and public, and inner thought and outer world.” As this definition indicates, communication is difficult to define in a consistent manner, because it is commonly used to refer to a wide range of different behaviors (broadly: “the transfer of information”), or to limit what can be included in the category of communication (for example, requiring a “conscious intent” to persuade). John Peters argues the difficulty of defining communication emerges from the fact that communication is both a universal phenomena (because everyone communicates) and a specific discipline of institutional academic study.