When an electrolyte is dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water, it generates an electrically conducting solution.
The electrolyte dissolves and splits into cations and anions, which scatter evenly across the solvent.
Such a solution is electrically neutral.
When an electric potential is introduced to such a solution, the cations are pulled to the electrode with an abundance of electrons, whilst the anions are driven to the electrode with a shortage of electrons.
A current is formed by the movement of anions and cations in opposing directions inside a solution.
This contains the vast majority of soluble salts, acids, and bases.
Electrolyte solutions can also form as a result of the breakdown of some biological and synthetic polymers with charged functional groups, known as “polyelectrolytes.”
When a material dissociates into ions in solution, it gains the ability to conduct electricity.