When an electrolyte is dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water, it generates an electrically conducting solution.

The electrolyte dissolves and splits into cations and anions, which scatter evenly across the solvent.

Such a solution is electrically neutral.

When an electric potential is introduced to such a solution, the cations are pulled to the electrode with an abundance of electrons, whilst the anions are driven to the electrode with a shortage of electrons.

A current is formed by the movement of anions and cations in opposing directions inside a solution.

This contains the vast majority of soluble salts, acids, and bases.

Electrolyte solutions can also form as a result of the breakdown of some biological and synthetic polymers with charged functional groups, known as “polyelectrolytes.”

When a material dissociates into ions in solution, it gains the ability to conduct electricity.

Electrolytes include sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, and phosphate.