Automation describes a wide range of technologies that reduce intervention in processes.

intervention is reduced by predetermining decision criteria, subprocess relationships, and related actions — and embodying those predeterminations in machines.

Automation, includes the use of various equipment and control systems such as , processes in factories, boilers, and heat-treating ovens, switching on telephone networks; steering and stabilization of ships, , and other applications and vehicles with reduced intervention.

Automation encompasses a wide range of applications, from a residential thermostat managing a boiler to a big control with tens of thousands of input measurements and output control signals.

Automation has also found a home in the banking .

It can range from basic on-off control to multi-variable high-level algorithms in terms of control complexity.

In the simplest type of automatic control loop, a controller compares a measured value of a process with a desired set value and processes the resulting error signal to change some input to the process, in such a way that the process stays at its set point despite disturbances.

This closed-loop control is an application of feedback to a .

The mathematical basis of control  was begun in the 18th century and advanced rapidly in the 20th.

Automation has been achieved by various means, including mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, , electronic devices, and computers, usually in combination.

Complicated systems, such as modern factories, airplanes, and ships, typically use all these combined .

The benefits of automation include labor savings, reducing waste, savings in  costs, savings in material costs, and improvements to quality, accuracy, and precision.

The World Bank‘s World Development  2019 shows that the new industries and jobs in the sector outweigh the effects of workers being displaced by automation.

losses and downward mobility blamed on automation have been cited as one of many factors in the resurgence of nationalist, protectionist, and populist politics in the US, UK, and , among other countries, since the 2010s.

The term automation, inspired by the earlier  automatic (coming from the automaton), was not widely used before 1947, when established an automation department.

It was during this time that was rapidly adopting feedback controllers, which were introduced in the 1930s.

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