Parametric equation

A parametric equation in mathematics specifies a set of numbers as functions of one or more independent variables known as parameters. Parametric equations are widely used to express the coordinates of the points that make up a geometric object, such as a curve or surface, in which case the equations are referred to as the object’s parametric representation or parameterization (alternatively written as parametrisation).

Cheese

Cheese is a dairy product made from milk that comes in a variety of tastes, textures, and shapes thanks to the coagulation of the milk protein casein. It is made up of proteins and lipids derived from milk, often that of cows, buffalo, goats, or sheep. During the manufacturing process, the milk is frequently acidified and enzymes such as rennet or bacterial enzymes with comparable activity are added to cause the casein to coagulate. After that, the solid curds are separated from the liquid whey and pressed into finished cheese. Aromatic molds can be found on the rind, the outer layer, or throughout the cheese. Most cheeses melt when heated to cooking temperature.

Public administration

  • Public administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil employees for working in the public service.
  • As a “field of inquiry with a diverse scope” whose fundamental goal is to “advance management and policies so that government can function.”
  • Some of the various definitions which have been offered for the term are: “the management of public programs”; the “translation of politics into the reality that citizens see every day”; and “the study of government decision making, the analysis of the policies themselves, the various inputs that have produced them, and the inputs necessary to produce alternative policies.”
  • The word public administration is the combination of two words—public and administration.
  • In every sphere of social, economic and political life there is administration which means that for the proper functioning of the organisation or institution it must be properly ruled or managed and from this concept emerges the idea of administration.

Caecocaelus

Caecocaelus is a genus of beetles in the family Carabidae, containing the following species:

  • Caecocaelus basilewskyi 
  • Caecocaelus clarkei 
  • Caecocaelus decellei 
  • Caecocaelus elongatus 
  • Caecocaelus kabarensis 
  • Caecocaelus leleupi 
  • Caecocaelus microphthalmus
  • Caecocaelus ruandanus 
  • Caecocaelus scotti

Elevation

The elevation of a geographic location is its height above or below a fixed reference point, most commonly a reference geoid. The term elevation is mainly used when referring to points on the Earth’s surface, while altitude or geopotential height is used for points above the surface. Elevation is not to be confused with the distance from the center of the Earth.

Mantle (geology)

A mantle is a layer within a planetary body that is bordered below by a core and above by a crust. Mantles are composed of rock or ice and are the biggest and most substantial layer of a planetary body. Mantles are found on planets that have experienced density differentiation. Mantles are found on all terrestrial planets (including Earth), a few of asteroids, and certain planetary moons.

Hypothesis

A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is an explanation proposed for a phenomena. The scientific method demands that a hypothesis be testable in order for it to be considered a scientific hypothesis. Scientists often develop scientific hypotheses on earlier data that cannot be explained satisfactorily by the established scientific theories. Despite the fact that the terms “hypothesis” and “theory” are sometimes used interchangeably, a scientific hypothesis is not the same as a scientific theory. A working hypothesis is a hypothesis that has been tentatively accepted and is being offered for further investigation, in a process that begins with an informed guess or notion.

Continental drift

Continental drift is the theory that the Earth’s continents have shifted relative to one another during geologic time, giving the impression that they have “drifted” over the ocean floor. Abraham Ortelius proposed the theory that continents ‘drifted’ in 1596. Alfred Wegener separately and more extensively established the notion in 1912, but his hypothesis was dismissed by many due to the lack of any motivating mechanism. Mantle convection was later hypothesized by Arthur Holmes as a mechanism for this. The concept of continental drift has subsequently been absorbed into the discipline of plate tectonics, which analyzes the movement of continents as they ride on plates of the Earth’s lithosphere.

Hydrosphere

The hydrosphere is defined as the total mass of water found on, beneath, and above the surface of a planet, minor planet, or natural satellite. Despite the fact that the Earth’s hydrosphere has been existing for roughly 4 billion years, it is still changing shape. This is created by seafloor spreading and continental drift, which causes the land and ocean to reorganize.

It is believed that the Earth contains 1.36 billion cubic kilometers (332 million cubic miles) of water. This encompasses both liquid and frozen water in groundwater, seas, lakes, and streams. Fresh water contributes for only 2.5 percent of this total, whereas saltwater accounts for 97.5 percent. 68.9 percent of this fresh water is in the form of ice and permanent snow cover in the Arctic, Antarctic, and mountain glaciers; 30.8 percent is in the form of fresh groundwater; and just 0.3 percent is in conveniently accessible lakes, reservoirs, and river systems.

The overall mass of the Earth’s hydrosphere is approximately 1.4 1018 tonnes, or approximately 0.023 percent of the total mass of the Earth. At any one time, around 20 1012 tonnes of this is present in the form of water vapor in the Earth’s atmosphere (for practical purposes, 1 cubic meter of water weighs one tonne). The ocean covers around 71 percent of the Earth’s surface, an area of approximately 361 million square kilometers (139.5 million square miles). The average salinity of the world’s oceans is around 35 grams of salt per kilogram of sea water (3.5 percent ).

Earth

Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only known celestial object capable of harboring and supporting life. Land, which consists of continents and islands, covers 29.2 percent of the Earth’s surface. The remaining 70.8 percent is covered by water, largely in the form of oceans, seas, gulfs, and other salt-water bodies, but also in the form of lakes, rivers, and other freshwater bodies, which comprise the hydrosphere. The polar areas of the Earth are mostly covered with ice. The Earth’s outer layer is divided into several rigid tectonic plates that migrate across the surface over many millions of years, while its interior remains active, with a solid iron inner core, a liquid outer core that generates the magnetic field, and a convective mantle that drives plate tectonics.