Andrew Carnegie was a Scottish-American philanthropist and businessman. Carnegie drove the late-nineteenth-century rise of the American steel industry and became one of the wealthiest Americans in history. He rose to prominence as a philanthropist in both the United States and the British Empire. During the last 18 years of his life, he donated almost $350 million (approximately $5.2 billion in 2020) to charities, foundations, and institutions, accounting for nearly 90 percent of his fortune. His 1889 paper, “The Gospel of Fortune,” urged the wealthy to spend their wealth to benefit society, advocated for progressive taxation and an estate tax, and sparked a surge of charity.