Power system protection

Power system protection is a branch of electrical power engineering that deals with the protection of electrical power systems from faults through the disconnection of faulted parts from the rest of the electrical network. The objective of a protection scheme is to keep the power system stable by isolating only the components that are under fault, whilst leaving as much of the network as possible still in operation. Thus, protection schemes must apply a very pragmatic and pessimistic approach to clearing system faults. The devices that are used to protect the power systems from faults are called protection devices.

Components

Protection systems usually comprise five components:

  • Current and voltage transformers to step down the high voltages and currents of the electrical power system to convenient levels for the relays to deal with
  • Protective relays to sense the fault and initiate a trip, or disconnection, order
  • Circuit breakers to open/close the system based on relay and autorecloser commands
  • Batteries to provide power in case of power disconnection in the system
  • Communication channels to allow analysis of current and voltage at remote terminals of a line and to allow remote tripping of equipment.

For parts of a distribution system, fuses are capable of both sensing and disconnecting faults

Failures may occur in each part, such as insulation failure, fallen or broken transmission lines, incorrect operation of circuit breakers, short circuits and open circuits. Protection devices are installed with the aims of protection of assets and ensuring continued supply of energy.

Switchgear is a combination of electrical disconnect switches, fuses or circuit breakers used to control, protect and isolate electrical equipment. Switches are safe to open under normal load current (some switches are not safe to operate under normal or abnormal conditions), while protective devices are safe to open under fault current. Very important equipment may have completely redundant and independent protective systems, while a minor branch distribution line may have very simple low-cost protection.